Type 1 diabetes occurs in the pancreas when insulin-producing beta cells undergo an autoimmune process. Since patients have an absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin, they have to take the insulin hormone for life from outside (by injection). Therefore, Type 1 diabetes is also called Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). In general, 10% of cases of diabetes in the community are cases of Type 1 diabetes. The frequency of Type 1 diabetes in childhood varies between countries (regions) and 1 of 42 of 100,000 children under 15 years of age develop diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is more common in northern countries.
In order to provide blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes, drugs available in our country can be examined in 3 groups according to their mechanism of action:
Sulfonylureas; they increase the release of insulin from the pancreas and make the body more susceptible to insulin.
Biguanides; they reduce blood sugar by increasing the glucose (sugar) entry into the cells in the presence of insulin, and also reduce the absorption of sugar from the intestine (metformin). They are preferred in obese patients. This group of drugs in our country include Glucophage, Glyphor, Gluformin, Glucophen. Alpha-Glycosidase inhibitors; In our country, this group of drugs known as Glucobay, slow down the breakdown of carbohydrates in the intestine and reduce blood sugar elevations after meals.
Glinides: Drugs known as Nateglinide, Repaglinid (Novonorm, Starlix) induce insulin-secreting beta-cells in the pancreas in the short-term to reduce the increase in blood sugar after meals. Reduces insulin resistance; drugs that increase sensitivity to insulin: These drugs reduce insulin resistance by acting differently from metformin. It may cause mild water retention in the body and an average weight gain of 2-3 kg (Avandia).
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